Land Measurement Units in India

Land Measurement Units in India

Land measurement units in India vary from state to state. Measurement of land in North India is done in units such as Bigha, Biswa, Marla, Kanal, Kattha etc. whereas units used in Southern states include Ground, Cent, Ankanam, Guntha etc. Sizes of units like Bigha, Biswa and Katha also vary from state to state. Although there is an increase in the use of standard units such as Square Feet, Square Yards, Square Meters, Acres and Hectares, local units are still used all across India for measurement of land. We realised that such important information about land measurement units in India is fragmented and should be assimilated at one place. Hence, in this Guide, we have collated all major land measurement units used in India and provided area conversion table & length conversion table for better understanding.

Area Conversion Table

Following Area Conversion Table gives important conversion factors and a brief description about all area units.

Area Unit Area Conversion Factor Remarks
1 Ankanam 72 sqft 1 Acre is equal to 605 Ankanams. Unit used in parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
1 Acre 4840 sqyd Standard Unit to measure land, used in India and internationally.
1 Are 100 sqmtr 1 hectare is equal to 100 ares.
1 Bigha – Assam/ Bengal 1600 sqyd Bigha size in Assam and Bengal.
1 Bigha – Pucca (Bihar/ UP-I/ Rajasthan-I/ Punjab-I/ Haryana-I) 3025 sqyd Pucca Bigha is measured by Shahjahani Jarib of length 165 ft. 1 Pucca Bigha = 165 ft X 165ft. Used in Bihar and parts of UP, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.
1 Bigha (Gujarat/ Rajasthan-II) 1936 sqyd Bigha size used in Gujarat and some parts of Rajsthan. It is measured by Gantari Jarib of length 132 ft. 1 Bigha = 132 ft X 132 ft.
1 Bigha (HP-I/ Uttarakhand-I) 968 sqyd Bigha size used in parts of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
1 Bigha (HP-II/ Uttarakhand-II) 900 sqyd Bigha size used in parts of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.
1 Bigha (MP) 1333.33 sqyd Bigha size used in parts of Madhya Pradesh.
1 Bigha- Kachha (Punjab-II/ Haryana-II/ UP-II) 1008.33 sqyd Kachha Bigha is one-third of Pucca Bigha. Used in parts of Punjab, Haryana & U.P. where settlement (bandobast/ chakbandi) has not happened.
1 Biswa – Pucca (UP-I/ Rajasthan-I/ Punjab-I/ Haryana-I) 151.25 sqyd 1/20 Bigha (Pucca)
1 Biswa – Rajasthan II 96.8 sqyd 1/20 Bigha (Rajasthan-II)
1 Biswa (HP-I/ Uttarakhand-I) 48.4 sqyd 1/20 Bigha (HP-I/ UK-I)
1 Biswa (HP-II/ Uttarakhand-II) 45 sqyd 1/20 Bigha (HP-II/ UK-II)
1 Biswa (Kaccha) – (Punjab-II/ Haryana-II/ UP-II) 50.417 sqyd 1/20 Bigha (Kaccha).
1 Biswansi 1/20 Biswa 1 Biswa has 20 Biswansis. Unit used in UP, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Each state has a different value for Biswansi depending on the value of Biswa/ Bigha used.
1 Centiare 1 sqmtr 1 Are is equal to 100 Centiares.
1 Cent 435.6 sqft 1 Acre is equal to 100 cents. Unit used in Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka.
1 Chatak 180 sqft Unit used in West Bengal. 1 Katha (Bengal) is equal to 16 chataks.
1 Decimal 48.4 sqyd 1 Acre is equal to 100 Decimals. Unit used in West Bengal.
1 Dhur (Bihar/ Jharkhand) 68.0625 sqft 1 Kattha (Bihar) has 20 Dhurs.
1 Dhur (Tripura) 3.6 sqft 20 Dhurs (Tripura) is equal to 1 Kranta.
1 Ghumaon 4840 sqyd An Acre is also known as Ghumaon in some parts of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab.
1 Ground 2400 sqft Unit used in parts of Tamil Nadu.
1 Guntha 1089 sqft Unit used in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka & Maharashtra. Measured as 33ft X 33 ft. 40 Gunthas equal 1 Acre.
1 Hectare 10000 sqmtr An international unit to measure land, 1 hectare is equal to 100 ares or 10,000 sqmtr or 2.47 acres approximately.
1 Kanal 5445 sqft 8 kanals is 1 acre. Unit used in Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir.
1 Kattha (Assam) 2880 sqft 1 Bigha (Assam) is 5 Katthas (Assam).
1 Kattha (Bengal) 720 sqft 1 Bigha (Bengal) has 20 Kathas.
1 Kattha (Bihar) 1361.25 sqft 1 Bigha (Bihar) has 20 Kathas.
1 Kattha (MP) 600 sqft 1 Bigha (MP) has 20 Kathas.
1 Killa 4840 sqyd An Acre is also known as Killa in some parts of Haryana and Punjab.
1 Kranta 72 sqft 1 Acre is equal to 605 Krantas. Unit used in Tripura.
1 Kuncham 484 sqyd 1 Kuncham is equal to 10 cents. Unit used in Andhra Pradesh.
1 Lecha 144 sqft 20 Lechas is 1 Kattha (Assam).
1 Marla 272.25 sqft  20 marlas is 1 kanal. Unit used in Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir.
1 Murabba 25acres 1 Murabba is 25 acres. Unit sometimes used in Punjabm Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.
1 Nalli 240sq yd 1 Nalli is 240 sqyd. Unit used in Uttarakhand.
1 Perch 272.25 sqft 1 Square Perch is equal to a square rod, 30.25 sqyds or 1/160th acre.
1 Rood 10890 sqft 1 Rood is 1/4 of an acre. 40 square perches is equal to 1 Rood.
1 Sarsahi (Square Karam) 30.25 sqft Measured as 1 karam X 1 karam (66in X 66in). 1 Marla has 9 Sarsahies. Unit sometimes used in Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.
1 Shatak 435.6 sqft 1 Acre has 100 Shataks.
1 Square Centimeters 0.00107639 sqft 1 Square Metres is 10000 Square Centimetres.
1 Square Feet 144 sq in 1 feet is 12 inches.
1 Square Inch 0.0069444 sqft 1 feet is 12 inches.
1 Square Kilometer 247.1 acres Standard International Unit of area to measure land. 1 Sq km is 0.3861 Sq Miles, 100 Hectares, 247.1 Acres or 1000000 Sq Mtr.
1 Square Meter 10.76391042 sqft Standard International Unit of area to measure land. 1 Sq Mtr is
1 Square Mile 640 acres 1 Sq Mile is 2.59 Sqkm, 259 Hectares or 640 Acres.
1 Square Yard 9sqft. 1 sq yd is 9 sq ft, measured as 3 ft X 3 ft. Also known as “Gaj” in India.

Length Conversion Table

Length Unit Equals Length Conversion Factor
1 Centimeter (cm) = 10 mm, 0.01 m
1 Chain (ch) = 66 ft, 22 yd (gaj), 100 links (kadi), 4 rods
1 Feet (ft) = 12 inches, 30.48 cm
1 Furlong = 660 ft, 220 yd, 40 rods, 10 chains
1 Gaj = 1 yd, 0.91444 m, 3 ft, 36 in
1 Gattha = 5.5 hath, 2.75 yd, 8.25 ft, 99 in
1 Hath = 0.5 yd, 18 in, 1.5 ft
1 Inch (in) = 2.54 cm, 0.0833 ft
1 Jarib (Shahjahani) = 165 ft
1 Jarib (Gantari) = 132 ft
1 Karam = 66 in, 5.5 ft
1 Kilometer (km) = 1000m, 3280.84 ft
1 Meter (m) = 100 cm, 39.3701 in, 3.28084 ft
1 Mile (mi) = 1.60934 km, 5280 ft
1 Millimeter (mm) = 0.1 cm, 0.001m
1 Perch/ Rod/Pole = 16.5 sqft, 5.5 yd
1 Yard (yd) = 1 Gaj, 3 ft, 36 in, 0.91444 m

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